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《关于凤凰彩票网址登录注册_最新APP下载最新相关内容》:The steam-engine, in the sense in which the term is employed, means not only steam-using machinery, but steam-generating machinery or plant; it includes the engine proper, with the boiler, mechanism for feeding water to the boiler, machinery for governing speed, indicators, and other details.
【凤凰彩票网址登录注册_最新APP下载】The reader may notice how everything pertaining to patterns and moulding resolves itself into a matter of judgment on the part of workmen, and how difficult it would be to apply general rules.Civil engineering, when spoken of, will be assumed as referring to works that do not involve machine motion, nor the use of power, but deal with static forces, the strength, nature, and disposition of material under constant strains, or under measured strains, the durability and resistance of material, the construction of bridges, factories, roads, docks, canals, dams, and so on; also, levelling and surveying. This corresponds to the most common use of the term civil engineering in America, but differs greatly from its application in Europe, where civil engineering is understood as including machine construction, and where the term engineering is applied to ordinary manufacturing processes.
Considering material progress as consisting primarily in the demonstration of scientific truths, and secondly, in their application to useful purposes, we can see the position of the engineer as an agent in this great work of reconstruction now going on around us. The position is a proud one, but not to be attained except at the expense of great effort, and a denial of everything that may interfere with the acquirement of knowledge during apprenticeship and the study which must follow.
Presuming an engineering establishment to consist of one-storey buildings, and the main operations to be conducted on the ground level, the only vertical lifting to be performed will be in the erecting room, where the parts of machines are assembled. This room should be reached in every part by over-head travelling cranes, that cannot only be used in turning, moving, and placing the work, but in loading it upon cars or waggons. One result of the employment of over-head travelling cranes, often overlooked, is a saving of floor-room; in ordinary fitting, from one-third more to twice the number of workmen will find room in an erecting shop if a travelling-crane is employed, the difference being that, in moving pieces they may pass over the top of other pieces instead of requiring long open passages on the floor. So marked is this saving of room effected by over-head cranes, that in England, where they are generally employed, handling is not only less expensive and quicker, but the area of erecting floors is usually one-half as much as in America, where travelling-cranes are not employed.Third. Machinery for applying power.
An apprentice at first generally forms an exaggerated estimate of what he has to learn; it presents to his mind not only a great undertaking, but a kind of mystery, which he fears that he may not be able to master. The next stage is when he has made some progress, and begins to underrate the task before him, and imagine that the main difficulties are past, that he has already mastered all the leading principles of mechanics, which is, after all, but a "small matter." In a third stage an apprentice experiences a return of his first impressions as to the difficulties of his undertaking; he begins to see his calling as one that must involve endless detail, comprehending things which can only be studied in connection with personal experience; he sees "the horizon widen as it recedes," that he has hardly begun the task, instead of having completed it—even despairs of its final accomplishment. If a cutting movement were performed by the tool supports, it would necessarily follow that the larger a piece to be planed, and the greater the distance from the platen to the cutting point, the farther a tool must be from its supports; a reversal of the conditions required; because the heavier the work the greater the cutting strain will be, and the tool supports less able to withstand the strains to be resisted.
Looking ahead into the future, the apprentice can see a field for the mechanical engineer widening on every side. As the construction of permanent works becomes more settled and uniform, the application of power becomes more diversified, and develops problems of greater intricacy. No sooner has some great improvement, like railway and steam navigation, settled into system and regularity than new enterprises begin. To offset the undertaking of so great a work as the study of mechanical engineering, there is the very important advantage of the exclusiveness of the calling—a condition that arises out of its difficulties. If there is a great deal to learn, there is also much to be gained in learning it. It is seldom, indeed, that an efficient mechanical engineer fails to command a place of trust and honour, or to accumulate a competency by means of his calling.
【凤凰彩票网址登录注册_最新APP下载】7. By condensing the steam before it leaves the engine, so that the steam is returned to the air in the form of water, and of the same volume as when it entered the boiler, there is a gain  effected by avoiding atmospheric pressure, varying according to the perfection of the arrangements employed.
Cutting tools include nearly all that are employed in finishing; lathes, planing machines, drilling and boring machines, shaping, slotting and milling machines, come within this class. The machines named make up what are called standard tools, such as are essential and are employed in all establishments where general machine manufacture is carried on. Such machines are constructed upon principles substantially the same in all countries, and have settled into a tolerably uniform arrangement of movements and parts.The safety, simplicity, and reliable action of hydraulic machinery has already led to its extensive employment for moving and lifting weights, and it is fair to assume that the importance and success of this invention fully entitle it to be classed as one of the most important that has been made in mechanical engineering during fifty years past. The application of hydraulic force in operating the machinery used in the processes for steel Bessemer manufacture, is one of the best examples to illustrate the advantages and principles of the hydraulic system. Published drawings and descriptions of Bessemer steel plant explain this hydraulic machinery.
【凤凰彩票网址登录注册_最新APP下载】3. The power developed is as the difference of volume between the feed-water forced into the boiler, and the volume of the steam that is drawn from the boiler, or as the amount of heat taken up by the water.